This project, funded by a British Academy Small Research Grant in 2014, investigates those political practices and values that could be termed "cultures of voting" and how they shaped relationships within and between communities in pre-modern Europe. The term “voting” designates both elections and other methods of reaching collective political decisions. The project's perspective is not only that of a traditional constitutional history, but integrates social and cultural history, the history of material culture and the history of political thought. We excavate the influence of ancient models and traditions on medieval and early modern polities, and question the extent to which they demonstrated a common European political heritage. We want to explore how these late medieval and early modern cultures contributed to the institutional developments of voting in the Modern Age.